The city of Novalja announced a local referendum for the arrangement of the Port of Novalja

first_imgThe city of Novalja has called a local referendum in which citizens will have the opportunity to decide whether they accept the urban development plan of the Port of Novalja or not.In Lijepo Naša, normal things are unusual, while abnormal practices have become normal. So this news that a local referendum is being organized is news that should be a completely normal and everyday practice, but it is “unusual” and great positive news. The city of Novalja, in addition to being recognized as a party destination because of the popular Zrće, in the last few years has been trying to turn to other niches of tourism, such as cultural, active and nautical tourism, to expand its tourist offer to more target groups.One of the new directions is nautical tourism, which wants to start through the arrangement of the Port of Novalja, which includes all the most important segments of the port open to public traffic, fishing ports, utility berths, marinas and sports ports. On this occasion, the city of Novalja invites the local population to Public tribune that will be held on Friday, November 04, 2016 at the Liburnija Hotel starting at 19,00, where the Mayor of the City of Novalja, Ante Dabo and his associates will present the final proposal of the Urban Development Plan of the Port of Novalja. After the public presentation and tribune of the whole project, a local referendum will follow where the citizens of Novalja will decide whether or not they want the arrangement of the Port of Novalja.Such communication should be normal because the purpose of tourism is to make maximum use of local resources and that the local population has a higher quality of life. Also, tourism is people, and if the population does not want such a form of tourism in the destination then the whole thing does not make sense, right? If the local population wants to build and develop through nautical tourism then they will know and prepare, ie organize to offer additional content and fit their product to that specific market. Logically, but also so rarely in Croatia. It is also one of our biggest tourist problems that we do not deal with the development of tourism in a planned and strategic way. However, in Novalja they have just set out on this path, with strategic development, and they have an excellent foundation as a recognized party destination, to build a new positive story. If we look at the long term, young people who come to Zrće are future target tourists of the new tourist paradigm of Novalja, because in a couple of years they will have a family and their motives for coming will be different.By developing new tourist products and focusing on quality, investing in the Port of Novalja sets a new step forward for the entire island of Pag. “Personally, I believe, like my associates in the city of Novalja, that in the long run we can not develop quality tourism without investment and development of the Port of Novalja. We need to make a strong and rounded tourist product and this is one of the first steps. We want to brand ourselves as a serious tourist destination, not just as a party destination. We have the potential, we develop from year to year, and the whole project of the Port of Novalja is quite integrated into the whole city and gives much greater value only to the city, especially the facilities along the coast. Novalja must live with the sea, and this project brings us a prerequisite for year-round tourism. We need quality, not quantity – in this direction, investing in the Port of Novalja is important as a first prerequisite. “Points out the mayor of Novalja, Ante Dabo.Although some were against and some abstained, the City Council at its last session held on October 17, by a majority vote passed the Decision to call a local referendum for November 20, 2016. The referendum question on which the citizens will have the opportunity to vote is: “Are you in favor of accepting the Urban Development Plan of the Port of Novalja in accordance with the proposed Conceptual design of the port and marina of Novalja owned by the City of Novalja.” “I want to get feedback from citizens for this project of the generation or century of the city of Novalja. It is very important that the local population is acquainted with all long-term and strategic projects, and especially with this project, and that they present their opinions and proposals. I am convinced of the positive outcome of the referendum that would open a new page in Novalja’s tourism. It is important to emphasize how the city manages all projects and how the project is owned by the city and not some companies from abroad which is much more serious for attracting investors.”Dabo pointed out and adds that if the citizens decide that they do not want the development and investment of the Port of Novalja, how will they turn to other projects that the citizens want and how it is an integral part of democracy.Novalja is the first Croatian city to give the audience a concert by a local performer in accordance with the latest holographic technology, tourist etiquette has been successfully introduced without negatively affecting the number of overnight stays, and currently several private investors are in the process of obtaining a building permit. the projects are already under construction. “Several hotels are being built, old hotels are being renovated, we have a quality camp Straško as well as the future auto camp Punta Nova which is included in the list of strategic investments in tourism, conceptual design and feasibility study is nearing completion for Ethno village – everything drags one after another we move forward.”Concludes Mayor Dabo.This is the first local referendum in Novalja since the establishment of the new Croatian state and that is why it is of historical importance for the city and all its inhabitants, regardless of the final outcome. The only right path is the strategic and long-term development of tourism that makes maximum use of local resources and in which the focus is on the local population, ie the public interest.Slowly but surely, Novalja is turning into a new flagship of our tourism, in any case, they are on the right track.Attachment: URBAN PLAN OF NOVALJA PORT ARRANGEMENTlast_img read more

Cappelli: In two years, more than 30 swimming pools for private renters in the Imotski region have been financed

first_imgMinister of Tourism Gari Cappelli paid an official visit to the Split-Dalmatia County at the invitation of County Prefect Zlatko Ževrnja, the Ministry of Tourism said, and the meeting was held in Imotski, given the real tourist boom that has been happening in the destination in recent years.”With little original income but a lot of good will and motivation, the public sector helps, informs and motivates local people to renovate old houses, build new villas with swimming pools and help them attract grants, so Imotski “withdrew” 10 percent of the total approved grants. funds for the construction of a swimming pool from the program Competitiveness of the tourism industry of the Ministry of Tourism”, emphasized the prefect of Ževrnja.The Ministry of Tourism in Imotski has invested more than 2015 million kuna in the last two years (2016 and 1,5). Tenders for the Competitiveness of the Tourist Economy program, which also includes a measure for the construction of a swimming pool for private renters, will be announced by the end of February, so a good response is expected this year as well. “Compared to 2006, the number of tourist nights in this part of the County has literally doubled, which means that the tourist product is well managed. The Ministry of Tourism will certainly help in the further development of the destination, both through grants, but also through education that is necessary to adapt to modern trends, which are changing very quickly in tourism.” Cappelli pointed out.On this occasion, the Minister and the County Prefect signed an agreement on co-financing additional medical assistance teams in tourist destinations in 2017, which is organized by the County in its area due to the increased number of tourists during the tourist season. The support of the Ministry of Tourism amounts to HRK 306.600,00. “The safety of tourists in our country is extremely important to us, and for that reason Croatia is perceived on foreign markets as a safe country, as shown by all relevant research. In addition to medical assistance teams, we are also financing the Croatian Mountain Rescue Service and the Red Cross, and in the future these amounts will be even more generous.”, Minister Cappelli emphasized during the signing of the contract.In 2016, the Ministry of Tourism invested almost HRK 9 million in the Split-Dalmatia County, HRK 3 million and 644 thousand through the Tourism Development Fund for public sector projects and HRK 4 million and 475 thousand through the Tourism Economy Competitiveness program for private sector projects. Also, professional associations, promotion of tourist professions through scholarships for pupils and students and additional medical assistance teams were financed.last_img read more

Oxytocin has social, emotional and behavioral benefits in young kids with autism

first_imgShare on Facebook A five week treatment with the synthetic hormone oxytocin significantly improved social, emotional and behavioral issues among young children with autism, according to University of Sydney research published today in Molecular Psychiatry.The study, led by researchers at the University’s Brain and Mind Centre, is thought to be the first evidence of a medical treatment for social impairments in children with autism. It is also the first clinical trial investigating the efficacy, tolerability and safety of intranasal-administered oxytocin in young children with autism.Autism is a group of complex brain developmental disorders characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and stereotypical and repetitive behaviours. The diagnosed incidence is estimated to be one in 68 children and effective interventions remain limited. Share Pinterest LinkedIncenter_img Email Share on Twitter Behavioural therapies can improve social, emotional and behavioural impairments but these are typically time consuming (40 hours per week), remain costly and show mixed outcomes. There is currently no medical treatment for these problems.In this new study, 31 children aged three to eight years of age received a twice daily course of oxytocin in the form of a nasal spray.“We used some of the most widely used assessments of social responsiveness for children with autism,” said autism expert, Associate Professor Adam Guastella of the Brain and Mind Centre.“We found that following oxytocin treatment, parents reported their child to be more socially responsive at home, and our own blind independent clinician ratings also supported improved social responsiveness in the therapy rooms of the Brain and Mind Centre,” he said.Overall, the nasal spray was well tolerated and the most common adverse events were thirst, urination and constipation.This is the first time a medical treatment has shown this type of benefit for children with autism and findings reinforce outcomes from a longer sustained program of research by this team.Over the last 10 years Brain and Mind Centre researchers have been documenting the benefits of oxytocin in humans, revealing that it enhances eye gaze, emotion recognition and memory across a range of populations.Study co-author and co-director of the Brain and Mind Centre, Professor Ian Hickie noted the new results were a critical first advance in the development of medical treatments for the social deficits that characterize autism.“The potential to use such simple treatments to enhance the longer-term benefits of other behavioural, educational and technology-based therapies is very exciting,” he said.Most recently the team has linked observed changes from treatment to brain changes associated with social circuitry. The next step in the research is to understand exactly how oxytocin changes brain circuitry to improve social behavior, and to document how related treatments might be used to boost established social learning interventions.The researchers are seeking to further develop the potential of oxytocin-based interventions within the context of good multi-disciplinary care for autism.last_img read more

Forget counting sheep — therapy could help chronic pain sufferers get a good night’s sleep

first_imgShare on Twitter LinkedIn Share on Facebook Email Sharecenter_img Pinterest Research conducted at the University of Warwick indicates that chronic pain sufferers could benefit from therapy to help them sleep better.The University of Warwick academics found that cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT) were either moderately or strongly effective in tackling insomnia in patients with long-term pain. They also discovered that chronic pain sufferers didn’t just benefit from improved sleep but also experienced a wider positive impact on pain, fatigue and depression. However they also concluded that therapies only worked when delivered in person.The study has been published in the journal Sleep. Dr Nicole Tang, from the University’s Department of Psychology who led the research said: “Poor sleep is a potential cause of ill health and previous studies suggest it can lead to obesity, diabetes, stroke, coronary heart disease – even death. Insomnia can also increase the risk of depression, anxiety and substance misuse. It is also a major problem for those suffering pain that lasts longer than three to six months and that is why we looked at this group. “This study is particularly important because the use of drugs to treat insomnia is not recommended over a long period of time therefore the condition needs to be addressed using a non-pharmacological treatment. We believe that our results will be of particular interest to primary care physicians and allied health professionals who are taking up an increasingly important role in preventing and managing long-term conditions.”The researchers from the University’s Department of Psychology and Warwick Medical School ran the first meta-analysis of the effects of non-drug treatments for sleeplessness, examining the experiences of more than a thousand chronic pain sufferers.They examined 72 studies of a total of 1,066 patients aged 45-61 who suffered from insomnia and experienced pain caused by a variety of ailments such as long-term cancer, headaches and arthritis.Treatments evaluated covered a variety of approaches. Most popular intervention strategies included psycho-education about sleep hygiene (good sleeping habits such as a regular sleeping pattern), stimulus control, sleep restriction, and cognitive therapy.In addition to highlighting the positive effect of CBT on insomnia the researchers identified a mild to moderate decrease in pain immediately after therapy. The researchers also noted that improved sleep resulted in a decrease in depression following treatment and at follow-ups up to 12 months. The research team believes this highlights the value of treating insomnia which exists with chronic pain as early as possible.However when delivered electronically – either over the phone or via the internet – the therapies were found to be less effective. Dr Tang said: “We found little evidence that using therapies delivered either by phone or computer benefitted insomniacs. The jury is still out on the effectiveness of using automated sleep treatments. We found that, at the moment at least, delivering therapies personally had the most positive effect on sleeplessness.”The team concluded that more research is now required to establish if it is feasible and cost-effective over the long-term to treat patients using CBT.last_img read more

How smartphones may help insomnia

first_imgLinkedIn An investigation published in the current issue of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics indicates how the smartphone may have a potential in the treatment of insomnia.Cognitive models of insomnia propose that attentional vigilance for threat during the pre-sleep period may play a causal role in insomnia by elevating physiological and psychological arousal to produce a state that is incompatible with the initiation of sleep.Consistent with such theoretical accounts, studies have confirmed that insomnia is associated with patterns of biased attention favoring sleep-related threatening information. Converging research has shown that attentional bias assessment methodologies, such as the attentional probe task, can be converted to attentional bias modification (ABM) tasks. Using such tasks, it has been shown that modification of biased attention for threat can achieve therapeutic benefits in conditions where this bias is implicated, including anxiety and mood disorders. Share Share on Twitter Pinterestcenter_img Share on Facebook Email The Authors aimed to assess whether targeted delivery of an ABM task during the pre-sleep period could reduce symptoms of insomnia and the cognitive symptoms of pre-sleep arousal.The study lasted 8 days (7 nights). The first 2 days served as a baseline period in which participants completed self-report measures and wore the sleep monitor, but did not complete the ABM or control task. These initial baseline days were followed by 5 consecutive ‘task completion days’ in which the participants completed, immediately prior to bed, an ABM task (ABM condition) or a non-training control task (control condition) on their smartphone.Overall, results suggest that attentional bias modification targeting vigilance for sleep-related threat during the pre-sleep period has the capacity to reduce cognitive arousal and improve insomnia symptoms, providing a crucial step towards establishing a novel intervention for insomnia.These findings provide encouragement that targeted ABM could be used not only as a potential treatment for insomnia, but also with other conditions that implicate attentional bias (and consequent anxious arousal), as being acutely problematic at specific points in time.last_img read more

Athletes may have white matter brain changes 6 months after a concussion

first_imgPinterest Share on Twitter Email LinkedIn New research finds white matter changes in the brains of athletes six months after a concussion. The study will be presented at the Sports Concussion Conference in Chicago, July 8-10, hosted by the American Academy of Neurology, the world’s leading authority on the diagnosis and management of sports-related concussion. The conference brings together leading experts in the field to present and discuss the latest scientific advances in diagnosing and treating sports-related concussion.The study involved 17 high school and college football players who experienced a sports-related concussion. The participants underwent MRI brain scans and were assessed for concussion symptoms, balance problems, and cognitive impairment, or memory and thinking problems, at 24 hours, eight days and six months following the concussion. Researchers also assessed 18 carefully matched athletes who had not experienced a concussion.At all time points, all participants had advanced brain scans called diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion kurtosis tensor imaging to look for acute and chronic changes to the brain’s white matter. The scans are based on the movement of water molecules in brain tissue and measure microstructural changes in white matter, which connects different brain regions. Those who had concussions had less water movement, or diffusion, in the acute stages following concussion (24 hours, six days) compared to those who did not have concussions. These microstructural changes still persisted six months after the injury. Also, those who had more severe symptoms at the time of the concussion were more likely to have alterations in the brain’s white matter six months later.center_img Share Despite those findings, there was no difference between the group of athletes with and without concussion with regard to self-reported concussion symptoms, cognition, or balance at six months post-injury.“In other words, athletes may still experience long-term brain changes even after they feel they have recovered from the injury. These findings have important implications for managing concussions and determining recovery in athletes who have experienced a sports-related concussion,” said study author Melissa Lancaster, PhD, of the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. “Additional research is needed to determine how these changes relate to long-term outcomes.” Share on Facebooklast_img read more

Study: Gender inequality increases gender gap in sustained attention control

first_imgPinterest Share on Facebook PsyPost interviewed the study’s corresponding author, Elizabeth Riley of Harvard Medical School. Read her responses below:PsyPost: Why were you interested in this topic?Riley: When we found the gender difference in our data set, we weren’t interested in just publishing it without explanation. We were aware of some literature investigating various causes of gender differences, including things like stereotype threat, cultural expectations and childhood experiences, and we wanted to see whether we could take advantage of the very rich data set we had to uncover any possible causes of the gender difference. In my opinion, delving into WHY gender differences exist is significantly more important (in terms of science and in terms of justice) than simply finding them.What should the average person take away from your study?I think what the average person should take from our study is that cultural biases and stereotypes matter, and it seems likely that they can affect individuals very deeply, including how they think. It’s a reminder that if we want to avoid making incorrect conclusions about the capabilities of human beings, we need to understand the biases and stereotypes that affect them.Are there any major caveats? What questions still need to be addressed?My feeling is that this is research, so there are always caveats, and there are a few worth mentioning. First of all, the effect size of sociocultural conditions on the size of the gender gap is small. We do believe our methods likely underestimate the size of the effect, but nevertheless, it’s small. Second, we don’t know the mechanism by which sociocultural conditions of gender inequality result in the particular pattern of error rates we observed – or even if there’s a direct cause and effect relationship, something we couldn’t establish with a correlational study. We have hypotheses, but there’s no way to know for sure without further work.The study, “Gender Differences in Sustained Attentional Control Relate to Gender Inequality across Countries“, was also co-authored by Hidefusa Okabe, Laura Germine, Jeremy Wilmer, Michael Esterman, and Joseph DeGutis. Places with less gender equality tend to have a larger gender gap when it comes to attentional control, according to research published in PLoS One.The study of 11,612 men and 9,872 women from 41 countries found that gender variations in sustained attention control were closely tied to gender equality.Sustained attention control is the the ability to focus on a task for a prolonged period of time while resisting distractions. The study found that women made significantly more omission errors than men, while men were more likely to wrongly identify items they were supposed to ignore. The differences were small in countries with greater gender equality, but twice as pronounced in countries that scored lower on human development and gender equality indicators. Share on Twittercenter_img LinkedIn Share Emaillast_img read more

Brain activity study links social anxiety to a preoccupation with making errors

first_imgPinterest Share A new study that monitored children’s brain activity suggests that social anxiety is related to a preoccupation with making mistakes. The research, published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, provides insight into the neurological mechanisms underlying social anxiety symptoms.“I am interested in better understanding social anxiety, and how it develops, for a number of reasons,” said study author George Buzzell of the University of Maryland.“First and foremost, social anxiety is a debilitating disorder affecting many individuals and we need to better understand this disorder if we want to help these people. I myself struggled with social anxiety for almost two decades and feel that I have been largely successful in overcoming it; I want to better understand this disorder so that I can help others find the help they need to do the same.” Share on Twitter LinkedIncenter_img The study examined 107 twelve-year-old children who had displayed an early-childhood temperament known as behavioral inhibition when they were younger. The researchers used an electroencephalogram to monitor the electrical brain activity of the children as they completed a psychological test that measures a participant’s ability to focus on information while blocking out distractions.The children completed the test, known as a flanker task, twice. Once after being told they would be observed and once after being told they would not be observed.By looking at post-error response times and a particular pattern of brain activity known as Error-Related Negativity, Buzzell and his colleagues were able to find that social anxiety and behavioral inhibition were linked to a hypersensitivity towards errors when under social observation.“One of the mechanisms through which social anxiety arises is an excessive focus on one’s self, and one’s perceived mistakes, in social situations. For individuals with social anxiety, this excessive focus on one’s perceived mistakes distracts/detracts from the ongoing social interaction,” Buzzell told PsyPost.But the study has some limitations.“First, is that although we were able to assess a child’s temperament early in life, prior to the development of social anxiety symptoms in adolescence, the other neurobehavioral measures were assessed once the adolescents were already showing signs of social anxiety,” Buzzell explained. “A better approach would be to also access the neurobehavioral measures prior to the emergence of social anxiety symptoms in order to truly identify a mechanism that gives rise to it. “The second major limitation is that our measure of ‘error preoccupation’ is based only on reaction times and is a rather crude measure; currently, we are employing more sophisticated analyses in order to better capture the full cascade of neural processes that precede and follow errors; we hope to publish the results of these new analyses soon.”“Although I am the one doing the talking right now, this was truly a team effort, involving a lot of very smart people (that are listed as authors on the manuscript). I am very grateful to all of my co-authors for their work on this project over the years and their insight, especially the principal investigator of this project, Dr. Nathan A. Fox,” Buzzell added. “Additionally, all of us are immensely thankful to all of the families that participated in this research, as it would not have been possible without their participation and commitment to the project. We are also very grateful for the generous funding that this project has received over the years.”The study, “A Neurobehavioral Mechanism Linking Behaviorally Inhibited Temperament and Later Adolescent Social Anxiety“, was authored by George A. Buzzell, Sonya V. Troller-Renfree, Tyson V. Barker, Lindsay C. Bowman, Andrea Chronis-Tuscano, Heather A. Henderson, Jerome Kagan, Daniel S. Pine, and Nathan A. Fox. Email Share on Facebooklast_img read more

New findings about why some people fall for fake news and pseudo-profound bullshit

first_imgShare on Twitter Email Pinterest Pseudo-profound bullshit describes statements that can appear to be deep but have no real meaning, such as the sentences “We are in the midst of a high-frequency blossoming of interconnectedness that will give us access to the quantum soup itself” and “Hidden meaning transforms unparalleled abstract beauty.”In three studies of 1,606 participants recruited via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, the researchers found that people who viewed bullshit statements to be profound were more likely to view fake news headlines as accurate.The participants judged the accuracy of a variety of fake and real news headlines. Participants who had a tendency to claim to be familiar with things that didn’t actually exist or that couldn’t be known were also more likely to view fake news as accurate.Those who scored higher on a measure of analytic thinking, on the other hand, tended to be less susceptible to believing fake news headlines.“Reasoning errors are (often) not random. There are systematic differences between people in terms of how they approach content on social media,” Pennycook told PsyPost.“Most broadly, there appears to be a general tendency for people engage in what we call ‘reflexive open-mindedness’ – they are overly willing to accept or believe a wide variety of claims without thinking analytically about them. This makes them prone to falling for fake news, pseudo-profound bullshit, and presumably a large class of other types of deceptive or simply false claims.”The researchers also found that bullshit receptivity was positively associated with the willingness to share both fake news and real news on social media.The link between perceptions of headline accuracy and willingness to share the news was relatively weak, suggesting that “the decision to share a news article – whether it is fake or real – is driven by concerns about reputation or virtue signaling” more than perceived accuracy.“We have only looked at a thin slice of the larger bullshit pie (apologies for the gross imagery),” Pennycook added. “There are a lot of deceptive and false types of claims that people have to contend with (particularly in the internet age), and I would consider this a preliminary look into the issue.”The study, “Who falls for fake news? The roles of bullshit receptivity, overclaiming, familiarity, and analytic thinking“, was authored by Gordon Pennycook and David G. Rand. People who overclaim their level of knowledge and are impressed by pseudo-profound bullshit are also more likely to believe fake news, according to new research published in the Journal of Personality.“I’ve long had an interest in the pitfalls (and strengths) of human reasoning and had published some work on why people fall for bullshit,” explained study author Gordon Pennycook (@GordPennycook), an assistant professor at the University of Regina.“During the 2016 election, fake news emerged as this huge story and there were many people scrambling for answers. David Rand and I decided that this was something that would be really interesting (and important) to investigate.”center_img LinkedIn Share on Facebook Sharelast_img read more

Lost letter experiment suggests urbanites are not less prosocial than their rural counterparts

first_imgShare on Twitter Share on Facebook Share People living in the city of Perth, Australia do not appear to be less altruistic than those living in rural towns, according to new research published in Evolutionary Psychological Science.“Altruism is considered a defining feature of mankind, but how altruism has become so prevalent has long intrigued and puzzled psychologists and evolutionary biologists,” explained study author Cyril C. Grueter, a senior lecturer at the University of Western Australia. “Countless lab-based studies have explored the functional underpinnings of altruistic behaviour but research under naturalistic conditions has lagged behind. One phenomenon in particular, the urban incivility phenomenon, has received mixed support in the academic literature.” LinkedIncenter_img Email Pinterest “The urban incivility phenomenon describes the stereotype that residents in large cities are selfish and uninterested in the wellbeing of their neighbours, while those who reside in small towns have a strong sense of community that fosters cooperation,” Grueter said.To examine the likelihood of helping behaviour, the researchers used the lost letter technique in 20 different suburbs of Perth and 12 rural towns in Western Australia.“We dropped Hundreds of letters in both a city and rural towns and counted the number of letters that were picked up by passers-by and posted in the mail to the legitimate recipient. Roughly half of the letters dropped were returned. This impressive number doesn’t dovetail with the view of humans as self-interested rational profit maximizers but instead points a picture of humans as Good Samaritans.”The researchers dropped 300 letters in urban/suburban environments and 502 letters in rural environments. The letters were stamped, sealed and addressed to a residential address, and were dropped face-up. The letters were distributed on Friday evenings to prevent postal workers from finding them on the weekday.“Moreover, city dwellers were neither less nor more altruistic than their rural counterparts; in other words, we found no support for the urban incivility phenomenon,” Grueter noted.But the study — like all research — includes some caveats.“There is ample room for follow-up studies to refine the methodological design. We need to be circumspect with extrapolating from these findings to other geographic locales,” Grueter explained. “Perth is not the typical ‘urban’ city — it is very suburban and people in different suburbs conglomerate together to form mini-communities within the larger metropolitan area. Perhaps the urban incivility phenomenon is only evident in actual urban cities with high population density and high residential instability? “Some of the towns also varied in terms of residential stability and demographics and this could have influenced letter return rates,” Grueter added. “For example, tourist towns with many unoccupied holiday homes may lack a sense of community that is characteristic of other rural towns. It’s also possible that the results are task-dependent, so for instance if had chosen a more onerous helping task, we might have found a different result.”The study, “Urban Civility: City Dwellers Are Not Less Prososcial Than Their Rural Counterparts“, was authored by Cyril C. Grueter, Grace Westlake, and David Coall.last_img read more